Broad Database

Facts and Figures, Research Papers and Resources  Database

Discrimination, Inequality, Injustice, Housing Crisis

 

Inequality

The Scale of Economic Inequality in the UK

  • Spread of income
  • How income is shared
  • Regions and nations
  • Wealth inequality

Source: Equality Trust

 

Widening inequality is largely a US and UK phenomenon – why?

  • Housing market
  • Educational attainment
  • Next generation

Source: The Independent

 

Fifty years of income inequality

  • Better off – less equal
  • The gap between rich and poor is much larger.
  • The graph in this video is one way to show the change.

Source: Full Fact

 

Higher inequality in the UK linked to higher poverty

  • The growing gap between the richest and poorest in the UK is directly linked to higher rates of poverty
  • Both inequality and poverty are now on the rise again and predicted to increase further in the next 5 to 15 years,
  • It has never been established if the two are directly linked. Until now.

Source: LSE

 

How has inequality changed?

  • Inequality Since 1938
  • Inequality Since the Financial Crisis
  • Income Change at the Bottom, Middle and Top

Source: Inequality Trust

 

Income inequality is getting wider. If the stats count what counts

  • Misleading official data
  • Explaining the Gini co-efficient
  • Effects of taxes and benefits on household income
  • Calculating the wealthy

Source: The Guardian

 

Unequal results: improving and reconciling the UK’s household income statistics

  • The Office for National Statistics (ONS) should extend its inequality statistics back to 1961
  • ONS should include additional variables in its datasets to facilitate comparison
  • ONS should include in its household income survey a measure of income that includes imputed rent
  • Additional recommendations to ensure accurate calculation of national statistics

Source: Resolution Foundation

 

Effects of taxes and benefits on UK household income: financial year ending 2016

  • The redistribution effects on households of direct and indirect taxation
  • Benefits received in cash or kind analysed by household type
  • Changing levels of income inequality over time.

Source: ONS

 

An up-to-date account of economic inequalities in Britain since 2008

  • An up-to-date account of inequalities in the UK since the financial crisis
  • Explains how the current trends compare internationally as well as among different social and age groups

Source: LSE

 

Income inequality in the UK – March 2018

  • This briefing paper looks at trends in income inequality in the UK over the last 50 years.

Source: House of Commons Library

 

Social Injustice

 

Greater powers needed to address UK’s social crisis

Source: parliament.uk

 

Poverty and the working classes

Source: British Library

 

Climate change and social justice: an evidence review

Source: CSE.org

 

Poverty and social justice

Source: Gov.uk

 

Money is not enough. We need a better measure of child poverty.

Source: Centre For Social Justice

 

‘Social injustice’ is killing 200,000 people in the UK every year

Source: University College London

 

Windrush scandal: What it’s like to be denied British citizenship and to have the right to work snatched away

Source: Manchester Evening News

 

It’s time to address the racial injustice in Britain’s social housing

Source: The Guardian

 

Centre for the Study of Poverty and Social Justice

Source: University of Bristol

 

UK’s elite universities ‘still have social justice problem’

Source: Unialliance

 

Discrimination/Social Mobility

 

FactCheck: Britain’s social mobility crisis in ten graphs

Source: Channel4 News

 

Unpaid internships are damaging to social mobility

Source: gov.uk

 

Racism is still alive and well, 50 years after the UK’s Race Relations Act

Source: The Guardian

 

Racial discrimination in UK housing has a long history and deep roots

Source: LSE

 

Young British Muslims ‘hampered by discrimination”

Source: The Independent

 

Social mobility index: 2017 data

Source: gov.uk

 

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF ECONOMIC MOBILITY

Source: Brookings Institute

 

Discrimination: your rights

Source: gov.uk

 

 

Housing Crisis

Search Live Database – House Price Index, numbers built, by type, etc at the base of this page

 

 

  • Today’s young adults are significantly less likely to own a home at a given age than those born only five or ten years earlier
  • The falls in homeownership have been sharpest for young adults with middle incomes.
  • The key reason for the decline is the sharp rise in house prices relative to incomes.
  • This increase in house prices relative to family incomes fully explains the fall in homeownership for young adults.
  • Young adults from more disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to own their home, even after controlling for the kind of job they have and other characteristics.
  • www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10505

 

  • 70% of Chinese millennials own their home.
  • China has seven of the world’s top 10 most expensive cities for residential property.
  • A sizeable 91% also plan to buy a house in the next five years, according to the survey.
  • Mexico was next with 46% of millennials owning property.
  • bbc.com/news/world-39512599

 

  • £1.1billion was spent on putting homeless families in temporary accommodation last year.
  • The bill has risen 33,000% in Three Rivers, Herts – from just £2,375 in 2009/10 to £798,717 in 2016/17.
  • The average rise – from the 270 councils who responded to FoI requests – was 45%
  • A shortage of affordable homes means record numbers of homeless people are living in temporary accommodation.
  • www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/tory-housing-crisis-costing-taxpayers-12126756

 

  • Housing Secretary Sajid Javid  failed to spend £1.1 billion of affordable housing cash (Total)
  • £292m allocated for desperately-needed affordable homes over the course of two years
  • £72m back to the Treasury which was allocated for affordable housing in 2017.
  • Failed to spend £220m on building affordable homes the previous year, it has now been discovered.
  •  Javid’s department also surrendered £379m for the government’s flagship Starter Homes schemes over the course of two years.

 

  • Tory ministers decided not to spend £72 million set aside to build affordable homes because it was “no longer required”, despite the housing crisis gripping Britain.
  • In 2016-17, just 41,530 affordable homes were built, the second lowest figure for a decade.
  • The majority of affordable homes are so-called ‘affordable rent’, where the monthly rent is set at up to 80% of private market rent.
  • The number of cheaper, “social rent” houses built each year has plummeted from 39,560 in 2010-11 – the year the new “affordable rent” definition was introduced – to just 5,380 last year.
  • www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/tory-ministers-decide-not-spend

 

 

  • Homeowners born in the 1940s and 1950s gained an unearned windfall of £80,000 between 1993 and 2014 alone through property values.
  • In the early 2000s, house price growth was so great that 17% of working-age adults earned more from their house than from their job.
  • resolutionfoundation.org/app/uploads/2017/06/Wealth.pdf

 

 

 

  • In eight of London’s 33 boroughs, not a single home on sale qualifies for the government’s Help to Buy scheme.
  • There are no new builds worth less than £600,000 up for sale in Camden, Hackney, Hammersmith, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth, Tower Hamlets or Westminster. Across the whole of the capital, just 603 homes qualify for the scheme
  • cityam.com/277791/lets-hope-housing-revolution-2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • A think tank has claimed that the UK housing crisis will soon become a “fertility crisis”, with more young people putting off having children in favour of saving for a deposit.
  • According to research, the last 10 years has seen a “collapse” in home ownership among young people. The research states that in 2004, there was 60% home ownership among 25-43 year olds, “the key childbearing demographic”, a figure which had fallen to just 35% by 2014.
  • plentific.com/news/think-tank-warns-property-price-growth-leading-uk-fertility-crisis-653/

 

 

  • New housing supply continues to fall behind new household growth across Great Britain
  • Private market totalling some £32 billion, as against affordable housing investment of just £8 billion
  • Overwhelming emphasis on support for the private market, taking 79% of the total of government support
  • https://www.cih.org/resources/PDF/1UKHR%20briefing%202017.pdf

 

 

 

  • Stamp duty – a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain legal documents – has a long history in England. It was first introduced in 1694 to help finance a war against France.
  • Stamp duty raised in government taxes went from £2.9 billion in 2008/09 to £8.6 billion in 2016/17
  • Stamp duty prevents moves to a more suitable dwelling locally but has little impact on long-distance relocation
  • https://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/cp516.pdf

 

 

  • Figures released by the Office of National Statistics show that UK wealth grew nearly 10% during 2016. The largest rise on record, this puts the UK’s total net worth at £9.8 trillion. But far from being the kind of growth that will help people, it is one of the trends exacerbating inequality and making homes less affordable.
  • Land wealth has grown nearly twice as fast each year as wealth held in machinery and equipment, and eight times faster than wealth held in intellectual property – debunking the idea that the UK’s economic growth is driven by jobs or innovation. Land wealth, which accounts for half of the UK’s wealth is generated not by a productive and innovative economy, but by financial speculation.
  • https://neweconomics.org/2017/12/land-wealth-shaky-foundations/?_sft_issue=housing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • A key measure of affordability is the cost of a home relative to income. In the 1960s the cost of the average UK home was three times the average salary. That ratio has now risen to seven for the UK as a whole but sixteen for London
  • Rents – half their gross salary as rent, while in the rest of the country rents are more likely to represent a quarter to a third of average salaries.
  • The first decade of this century has seen home ownership decline to 64% of the housing stock, the worst since 1918
  • https://www.greenhousethinktank.org/uploads/4/8/3/2/48324387/housing-final.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • While the foundations of the contemporary housing system were laid in the period following the First World War, the roots of the crisis lie in two developments in the 1980s: the privatisation of the social housing stock through the Right to Buy and the growth of mortgage lending in response to financial liberalisation
  • https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0309816816678571

Research Papers Database

 

THE DECLINE OF HOMEOWNERSHIP AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

Source:      IFS

Date:          Feb 2018

Link:          www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10505

 

THE GENERATION OF WEALTH – ASSET ACCUMULATION ACROSS COHORTS

Source:  Resolution Foundation

Date:      June 2017

Link:      resolutionfoundation.org/app/uploads/2017/06/Wealth.pdf

 

 

2017 HOUSING REVIEW – BRIEFING PAPER

Source: Chartered Institute of Housing

Date: 2017

Link: cih.org/resources/PDF/1UKHR%20briefing%202017.pdf

 

 

HOUSING FIRST

Source: Centre for Social justice.

Date: March 2017

Link: centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/core/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/CSJJ5157_Homelessness_report_070317_WEB.pdf

 

4 THINGS THE GOVERNMENT MUST DO IF IT REALLY WANTS TO BOOST AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Source: New Economics Foundation

Date: October 2017

Link: https://neweconomics.org/2017/10/4-things-government-must-really-wants-boost-affordable-housing/

 

 

BUILDING HOMES FASTER? A COMMENTARY ON THE GOVERNMENT’S PLANS FOR INCREASING THE PACE OF DEVELOPMENT

Source: Civitas

Date: May 2017

Link: https://www.civitas.org.uk/publications/building-homes-faster/

 

 

COUNCILS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS SHOULD DEFINE AFFORDABILITY TOGETHER

Source: Chartered Institute of Housing

Date: 2017

Link: cih.orh/news/councilsandhousingassociationsshoulddefine

 

 

STAMP DUTY, MOBILITY AND THE UK HOUSING CRISIS

Source: London School of Economics

Date: Autumn 2017

Link: cep/.se.ac.uk/dpwnload.pdf

 

INVESTING TO SOLVE THE HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Savills Research

Date: Nov 2016

Link: savills.co.uk_research/141285

 

DEVELOPERS RENEGE ON AFFORDABLE HOMES AS COUNTRYSIDE FACES HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Campaign to protect rural England

Date: June 2017

Link: cpre.org.uk/media-centre/latest-news-releases/item/4602-developers-renege-on-affordable-homes

 

 

THE LAND QUESTION: FIXING THE DYSFUNCTION AT THE ROOT OF THE HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Civitas

Date: November 2017

Link: https://www.civitas.org.uk/publications/the-land-question/

 

HALF OF UK’S WEALTH RESTS ON SHAKY FOUNDATIONS: A NEW APPROACH TO LAND AND HOUSING IS URGENT.

Source: New Economics Foundation

Date: December 2017

Link: https://neweconomics.org/2017/12/land-wealth-shaky-foundations/?_sft_issue=housing

 

BETTER PLANNING FOR HOUSING AFFORDABILITY

Source: RTPI

Date: Feb 2017

Link: rtpi.org.uk/media/2220516/rtpi_better_planning_housing_affordability_position_paper_-_february_2017.pdf

 

RESEARCH: DESPERATE HOUSING CRISIS – COUNCILS WARNING OF ‘SEVERE’ NEED FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Source: Assoc of Public Service Excellence

Date: 2017

Link: apse.org.uk/apse/index.cfm/news/2017/research-reveals-desperate-housing-crisis-with-councils-warning

 

 

HOMELESSNESS – ORDERED BY THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

Source: National Audit Office

Date: 2017

Link: nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Homelessness.pdf

 

LAND MAP REVEALS WHERE DEVELOPERS HAVE SCRAPPED AFFORDABLE HOMES

Source: New Economics Foundation
Date: October 2017
Link: https://neweconomics.org/2017/10/land-map-reveals-developers-scrapped-affordable-homes/?_sft_issue=housing

 

NEW HOMELESSNESS STATISTICS – GRENFELL TRAGEDY SHEDS LIGHT ON OUR HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Shelter

Date: June 2017

Link: england.shelter.org.uk/media/press_releases/articles/new_homelessness_statistics

 

 

PUTTING PUBLIC LAND TO PUBLIC USE – A FIRST STEP

Source: New Economics Foundation
Date: October 2017
Link: https://neweconomics.org/2017/10/putting-public-land-public-use-first-step

 

 

4 REASONS WHY HELP-TO-BUY SHOULD BE SCRAPPED, NOT EXTENDED

Source: New Economics Foundation
Date: October 2017
Link: https://neweconomics.org/2017/10/four-reasons-help-buy-scrapped-not-extended

 

 

DISCOVER THE HOME YOUR RENT COULD’VE BOUGHT YOU

Source: Shelter.org
Date: 2017
Link: https://england.shelter.org.uk/support_us/campaigns/total_rents_calculator

 

 

WHAT IS AFFORDABLE HOUSING – A FACTS AND FIGURES GUIDE

Source: Bureau of Investigative Journalism

Date: Unknown
Link:  www.thebureauinvestigates.com/explainers/what-is-affordable-housing-a-bureau-guide

 

 

YOUNG PEOPLE LOCKED OUT OF HOME OWNERSHIP

Source: Chartered Institute of Housing
Date: 2017
Link: https://www.cih.org/news-article/display/vpathDCR/templatedata/cih/news- article/data/Young_people_locked_out_of_home_ownership

 

BUILDING BRIDGES – A GUIDE TO BETTER PARTNERSHIP WORKING BETWEEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS

Source: Chartered Institute of Housing
Date: August 2017
Link https://www.cih.org/publication-free/display/vpathDCR/

 

HOUSING 2017: DEEP PUBLIC CONCERN ABOUT GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Chartered Institute of Housing
Date: June 2017
Link:
https://www.24housing.co.uk/news/housing-2017-deep-public-concern-about-government-response-to-housing-crisis/

 

80 PERCENT OF GOVERNMENT HOUSING FUNDING IS ON PRIVATE HOUSING

Source: Inside Housing
Date August 2017
Link:
httpss://www.insidehousing.co.uk/news/news/80-of-government-housing-funding-is-on-private-housing-52398

 

COUNCILS CAN HELP FIX A BROKEN HOUSING MARKET

Source: Public Finance
Date: December 2017
Link: https://www.publicfinance.co.uk/opinion/2017/12/councils-can-help-fix-broken-housing-market

 

GOVERNMENT SHOULD ENSURE HOUSING BUDGET PLEDGES GO TO RIGHT HOMES IN THE RIGHT PLACES

Source: Public Finance
Date: Nov 2017
Link:
https://www.publicfinance.co.uk/opinion/2017/11/housing-budget-cash-needs-be-directed-build-right-homes-right-places

 

MORE THAN 200,000 HOMES IN ENGLAND LIE EMPTY

Source: bolton.gov.uk
Date: April 2017
Link: https://www.bolton.gov.uk/sites/DocumentCentre/Documents/Housing%20Update%20Weeks%2017-18%202017.pdf

 

WHO WILL FIX LONDON’S HOUSING CRISIS?

Source: Centre for Policy Studies
Date: April 2017
Link: https://www.cps.org.uk/publications/who-will-fix-london-s-housing-crisis/

 

WHY BUILDING MORE HOUSES WILL NOT SOLVE THE PROBLEM

Source: Greenhouse Think Tank
Date 2017
Link: https://www.greenhousethinktank.org/uploads/4/8/3/2/48324387/housing-final.pdf

 

HOUSING CRISIS RISKS CAUSING ‘DEMOGRAPHIC TIME BOMB’

Source: localgov.co.uk
Date July 2017
Link: httpss://www.localgov.co.uk/Housing-crisis-risks-causing-demographic-time-bomb-report-says/43443

 

THINK TANK WARNS PROPERTY PRICE GROWTH IS LEADING TO UK “FERTILITY CRISIS”

Source: Adam Smith Institute – via Plentific
Date: June 2017
Link: httpss://plentific.com/news/think-tank-warns-property-price-growth-leading-uk-fertility-crisis-653/

 

HOW TO END THE HOUSING CRISIS, BOOST THE ECONOMY AND WIN MORE VOTES

Source: Adam Smith Institute
Date: April 2017
Link: httpss://www.adamsmith.org/research/yimby

 

DISABLED PEOPLE IN BRITAIN FACE A HIDDEN HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Southward Carers
Date: Unknown
Link: httpss://www.southwarkcarers.org.uk/disabled-people-britain-face-hidden-housing-crisis-charity-warns/

 

BRITAIN’S HIDDEN HOUSING CRISIS – SUPPORT AND RESOURCES

Source: BBC – Panorama
Date:
Link: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/5HTfN1JYgzQ0X3m0jSHz94j/panorama-britains-hidden-housing-crisis-support-and-resources

 

AFFORDABILITY OF HOUSING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

Source: Wikipedia
Date: Updated
Link: httpss://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affordability_of_housing_in_the_United_Kingdom

 

HOMELESSNESS

 

 

TACKLING FAMILY HOMELESSNESS IN THE UK

Source: Social Policy Analysis

Date: 2017

Link: spi.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/spi/documents/media/spa_family_homelessness.pdf

 

CORE HOMELESSNESS IN GREAT BRITAIN (2017)

Source: Crisis

Date: Aug 2017

Link: crisis.org.uk/ending-homelessness/homelessness-knowledge-hub/types-of-homelessness

 

THE HOMELESSNESS MONITOR – 2017

Source: Crisis

date: March 2017

Link: crisis.org.uk/media/236823/homelessness_monitor_england_2017.pdf

 

HOMELESSNESS RESOURCES JRF

Source: Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Date: Updated

Link: jrf.org.uk/housing/homelessness

 

SOME OLDER RESEARCH PAPERS THAT MAY BE USEFUL

THE GREAT BRITISH HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Sage Journals

Date: Dec 2016

Link: sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0309816816678571

 

GENERATION PAUSE: 60% OF UNDER 45S LEFT BEHIND BY HOUSING CRISIS

Source: Shelter

Date: 2016

Link: england.shelter.org.uk/media/press_releases/articles/generation_pause_60_of_under_45s_left_behind_by_housing_crisis

RESTORING A NATION OF HOME OWNERS: WHAT WENT WRONG WITH HOME OWNERSHIP IN BRITAIN, AND HOW TO START PUTTING IT RIGHT

Source: Civitas
Date: June 2016
Link: https://www.civitas.org.uk/publications/restoring-a-nation-of-home-owners/

 

HAND HOUSING BACK TO COMMUNITIES TO SOLVE BUILDING CRISIS

Source: Demos Think Tank
Date: 2015
Link: httpss://www.demos.co.uk/press-release/hand-housing-back-to-communities-to-solve-building-crisis/

 

HOUSING CRISIS: CHARITY HELPLINE RECEIVES A CALL FOR HELP EVERY 30 SECONDS AS DEMAND SURGES

Source: Shelter

Date: 2016

Link: england.shelter.org.uk/media/press_releases/articles/MandS_charity_helpline

 

HOUSING SUPPLY IN 2015–2020: KEY ISSUES FOR THE 2015 PARLIAMENT

Source: Parliament UK

Date: May 2015

Link: parliament.uk/business/publications/research/key-issues-parliament-2015/social-protection/housing-supply/

 

 

Search Government Databases

 

  • Search UK House price Index – updated monthly by Land Registry
  • by house type, buyer status, funding status, property status, percentage change monthly/yearly
  • by sales volume, new build / existing

landregistry.data.gov.uk/app/ukhpi

 

  • Live tables on house building: new build dwellings – The latest data tables on house building: new build dwellings

www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/live-tables-on-house-building